The United Kingdom (members of Allied Control Commission (ACC)), Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam), Cambodia (Khmer Republic and Khmer Rouge), Republic of Vietnam ( aka South Vietnam (1955 – 1975) succeeded State of Vietnam (1949 – 1955) ). Newly communist China had supported Ho Chi Minh during the war with the French, and continued to do so during the war with the U.S. by providing weapons, expertise and manpower. Elections were planned to reunite the country within two years, but Diem, with U.S. approval, never submitted to a vote that he feared losing. At first, the United States largely operated behind the scenes. Jennifer Manzo Both Moscow and Beijing hoped to expand communism into Asia. Winston Churchill, and later Harold Wilson, may be thought of as having kept Britain out of Vietnam, but in actual fact, that was only once it had begun to escalate.. i dont want explinations about federal nations and immigration and stuff, just give me a simple list of the countries invlved, and if you can, please tell me who were allies and … In 1962, the United States, both Vietnams, and several other nations agreed to respect the neutrality of and not interfere in the affairs of Laos, which borders Vietnam to the west. “The Koreans sent more troops and much more aggressive troops [than other U.S. allies],” Moise says. The Vietnam War served as a proxy war … Saigon is the city located in South Vietnam that resides next to Ho Chi Ming City. All of these countries were on the anti-communist force. Vietnam War. Since 1965, China also began to send AAA divisions and engineering units to help Hanoi counter U.S. overwhelming air strikes during Operation Rolling Thunder, repair the destruction caused by American bombing as well as rebuild roads, railroads and defend critical infrastructure in the North. China continued to provide military aid and support to North Vietnam years after the first Indochina war. Vietnam War Countries Involved View: More Articles from . Vietnam eventually fell completely to communism. Although Moscow belatedly recognized Ho’s government in January 1950, they rejected his request to back North Vietnamese movement for independence against the French. In December, another Beijing-Hanoi pact was signed granting a series of loans of undetermined amounts to North Vietnam. However, they did not actively involved in the conflict until early 1967 after their ruling Workers Party approved the decision in October 1966. The United States responded with a secret bombing campaign that Nixon drastically ramped up in 1969. The escalation of US involvement in Vietnam increased Soviet interest. The main countries involved in Vietnam included North Vietnam, South Vietnam, United States of America, Peoples Republic of China, South Korea and USSR. The situation changed dramatically when the Chinese communist won the civil in mainland china in October 1949 and fostered the communist movement further to Asia. The US first used napalm during World War II in both the European and Pacific theaters, and also deployed it during the Korean War.However, those instances are dwarfed by American use of napalm in the Vietnam War, where the US dropped almost 400,000 tons of napalm bombs in the decade between 1963 and 1973. Following France’s defeat in the First Indochina War, an international agreement divided Vietnam in two. Therefore, their roles and involvement remain unclear. However, they were also being paid off by the United States in the form of economic and military assistance. Besides, China also began to fund, arm and train the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia as a counterbalance to the Vietnamese communists. July 1954: At a conference in Geneva, world … Contents. China only came in 1979 after the war was over when China invaded north Vietnam. In 1971, the Pentagon Papers were leaked, revealing confidential information about the war. Prior to that time, the number of American newsmen in Indochina had been small—fewer than two dozen even as late as 1964. The United States lost the Vietnam War. USA. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Mostly in this world people think that the war is not the batter solution for any kind of dispute, violence and misunderstanding. Sheehan served as a war correspondent for United Press International and then the New York Times in the early days of US involvement in the Vietnam War in the 1960s. Despite the tensions, both Beijing and Moscow shared the same view on the conflict in Vietnam. Nonetheless, “if there had been no Chinese or Soviet support, the North Vietnamese could not have won,” he says, pointing out that the U.S. military budget was roughly 30 times greater than the entire gross national product of North Vietnam. Unsurprisingly, the North Vietnamese likewise moved troops and supplies through neighboring Cambodia, which, though officially neutral, tolerated the communist intrusions. China invaded Vietnam in 1979 by way of retaliation. Though it originally took little interest in the Vietnam War, the Soviet Union secretly ramped up its aid to North Vietnam following Nikita Khrushchev’s fall from power. The North was supported by communist countries such as the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union. Nixon then sent troops across the border in 1970, taking advantage of a coup that ousted Sihanouk in favor of a pro-American general. It wanted no part of the new conflict. The Chinese allowed Soviet materiel across China for the North to prosecute wage the war. That insurgency drew heavy U.S. bombing. Donate or volunteer today! ... What four presidents were involved in the war. Instead, Joseph Stalin encouraged Mao Zedong to assist North Vietnam, which he did in the First Indochina War and through the rest of the 1950s. Determined to prevent South Vietnam from falling into communist hands, the United States propped up Diem with billions of dollars in aid, as well as increasing numbers of military advisers. All told, the Chinese claimed to have spent over $20 billion in support of North Vietnam and deployed 320,000 military personnel, more than 4,000 of whom died. It was part of a larger regional conflict as well as a manifestation of the Cold War. The Philippines, Taiwan and Spain likewise aided the U.S. war effort, whereas on the communist side North Korea and Cuba purportedly sent token support. However, it’s worth noticing that after China’s ally Khmer Rouge conducted some savage raids along the border between Vietnam and Cambodia during 1975–1978 and Vietnam responded with an invasion that overthrew them, China decided to launch a brief, punitive border invasion of Vietnam in 1979 sometimes known as the Third Indochina War to “teach them a lesson”. South Vietnam was backed by anti-communist countries and members of the South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) which included the United States, South Korea, Australia, the Philippines, New Zealand, Thailand, Khmer Republic (later overthrown by Khmer Rouge), Kingdom of Laos and Republic of China (Taiwan). You can see Cambodia here, Vietnam along the coast, and then, Laos, right over here. What Countries Involved in the Vietnam War? This was the belief that if one country fell to communism, it was likely that the … South Korea South Korea, after the US, had the largest contingent of soldiers in South Vietnam. Vietnam Travel. This is the currently selected item. Similar to Beijing, Moscow who feared U.S. direct intervention in Vietnam urged Ho Chi Minh to accept the temporary division of Vietnam of the 1954 Geneva Accords and focus on building the country’s military and economy instead. Cold War tensions ran high as the country relentlessly fought against the alleged evils of communism. Laos was originally neutral in the conflict, but the North Vietnamese moved troops through the country and supported a communist insurgency. Due to the intervention of the international community, known as Operation Desert Storm, the Gulf War was ended. The Vietnam War (also known as Second Indochina War or American War in Vietnam) lasted from 1 November 1955–30 April 1975, (19 years, 5 months, 4 weeks and 1 day).It was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam.North Vietnam was supported by the Soviet Union, China and North Korea, while South Vietnam was supported by the United States, South Korea, Thailand, Australia, New … North Korea – Pyongyang also contributed to the communist north. Here, retired Colonel William C Haponski, co-author of ‘Autopsy of an Unwinnable War: Vietnam’, explains that the British were in fact one of five main players in early post-World War 2 Vietnam. jaguar & land rover. South Korea  was the main U.S. and South Vietnamese partner, contributing more than 300,000 troops to the war. All rights reserved. Hanoi is the capital of Vietnam that is located in the north of the country. Germany subsequently declared war following Russian cooperation with Serbia. So, too, did a legitimate fear of Communism, Moise says. North Vietnam is supported by what two countries. The 1988 book won the Pulitzer Prize for non-fiction. At the same time, advances in video and audio recording enabled both easier… Meanwhile, the relationships between China and Soviet Union began to deteriorate through the 1960s. The main reason the United States got involved in Vietnam was the purpose of doing everything possible to keep communism from spreading around world. North Korea had provided North Vietnam both political and military support including sending military advisers in the early stage of the Vietnam War due to the close Ideology between Hanoi and Pyongyang. It was also an important city that China, the Soviet Union, and other countries supported. “They were determined to go on holding it, both as a matter of national pride and because if they let one colony go loose, then the others might get ideas.”. Among other weapons, the USSR provided surface-to-air missiles that the Chinese weren’t yet technologically capable of producing. Bombs ready to be loaded onto a French aircraft for the long drawn out Dien Bien Phu Battle of the Indochina War on April 10, 1954. Twice a week we compile our most fascinating features and deliver them straight to you. Below is a list of nations that played a role in the Vietnam War, and details on what motivated them to get involved. He explains that they were partially motivated by a sense of obligation and ideological sympathy: After all, they could not help but notice the historical parallels between themselves and South Vietnam. Prince Norodom Sihanouk “basically felt that he was surrounded by dangerous enemies, and he had to make nice with some of them,” Moise says, adding that “he could not afford to offend” the North Vietnamese despite being “anti-communist in Cambodian politics.”. As a result, President Nixon ended all U.S. interventions in Vietnam and the rest of Southeast Asia in 1973. The United States got involved to prevent South Vietnam from falling into communist hands. June 7, 2016. Save your work forever, build multiple bibliographies, run plagiarism checks, and much more. Causes of the Vietnam war. Why Were Vietnam War Vets Treated Poorly When They Returned? Unlike during the Korean War, the United States yielded to this threat. The war resulted in the victory of North Vietnam (the communists) over the South Vietnam which means U.S. Had to accept the defeat. Khan Academy is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization. The Vietnam War. Overall, though, they pumped only about 3,000 troops into the conflict, far fewer than the Chinese. China and the Soviet Union didn’t have to do as much as the Americans, Moise explains, because they were buttressing the stronger side. Yet their support for South Vietnam never wavered, no matter who occupied the White House. If we take a look on the history of this word when the war is being started, there were number of causes from which the brutality and the economic disasters were major causes that were going through the countries to countries. On 2 July 1976, North and South Vietnam were merged to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. © 2012-2021 The Vietnam War. For the most part, the Chinese stayed in the background, rebuilding areas destroyed by U.S. bombs and manning anti-aircraft batteries. Nov. 5, 1968: Nixon is elected president, promising to end the war in Vietnam. In 1964, however, the so-called Gulf of Tonkin incident prompted President Lyndon B. Johnson to commit combat troops and launch a massive bombing campaign, and U.S. involvement only deepened from there. U.S. officials eventually soured on Diem, tacitly approving a 1963 coup that resulted in his death. The United States involvement in Vietnam began in 1950, during the French Indochina War. The Domino Theory. As a result, the Vietnamese suffered the highest casualties in the conflict. The War was mainly fought in South Vietnam, North Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos. South Vietnam is supported by what country. Chinese troops in North Vietnam would eventually withdraw, for the most part, by 1970. The Vietnam War (1955–75) was a time of great controversy in the United States. The U.S involvement in Vietnam had started as early as 1950 when Harry Truman sent military advisors to aid the French. Instead, a communist insurgency broke out, pitting the so-called Viet Cong, who were sponsored by North Vietnam, against Diem’s forces. Financial aid, along with a desire to curry favor with the United States, drew in additional countries as well. The Soviets even allegedly shot down some U.S. planes. Ho led the North, whereas the U.S.-backed Ngo Dinh Diem took charge of the South. The Saudi Arabian forces involved in the war were estimated to be close to 100,000. At the same time, Sino-Vietnamese relationship also soured as Hanoi refused to cut relations with Moscow as per Beijing’s demand as well as disagreement in Paris peace negotiations and particularly U.S. President Nixon’s visit to China in 1972. Sovfoto/Universal Images Group/Getty Images. The CIA-sponsored "Secret Army" of Major Gen. Vang Pao at Long Cheng, where the U. S. and Laotian governments permitted newsmen a rare glimpse of the base in 1972. Vietnam - Vietnam - The two Vietnams (1954–65): The agreements concluded in Geneva between April and July 1954 (collectively called the Geneva Accords) were signed by French and Viet Minh representatives and provided for a cease-fire and temporary division of the country into two military zones at latitude 17 °N (popularly called the 17th parallel). Automatically reference everything correctly with CiteThisForMe. In response to these North Vietnamese transgressions, the Americans covertly rained down billions of pounds of bombs on Laos. (The two countries were undergoing a bitter split at the time.). The Chinese interpreted American “aggression” against North Vietnam after the Gulf of Tonkin incident as their own and threatened to militarily intervene in North Vietnam if American forces crossed the DMZ. It was fought between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. The Soviets wanted to “make life difficult for the United States,” McAllister says, “but they didn’t want to do it in a way that got them in a conflict with the United States.”, Soviet involvement in the war increased in the late 1960s, just as China’s influence was lessening. Ho led the North, whereas the U.S.-backed Ngo Dinh Diem took charge of the South. People from other countries also went to fight but not in their own national army. But perhaps their biggest role was preemptive: They made it clear that if U.S. ground troops invaded North Vietnam, then they would respond in kind. In the 1954 Geneva Accords, following the Soviet Union, Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai urged the Viet Minh to accept a temporary partition of Vietnam at the 17th parallel. May 7, 1954: Ho Chi Minh’s Viet Minh forces defeat the French at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, effectively ending the 7 ½-year Indochina War. The countries involved in Vietnam were Republic of Vietnam, United States, Republic of Korea, Australia, Philippines, New Zealand, Thailand, Khmer Republic, and Kingdom of Laos. The other four were the French, the Japanese, the Chinese and, of course, the Vietnamese themselves. To conclude, China played an active and crucial role in supporting their communist ally in the Vietnam war the with more than 320,000 Chinese troops stationed in North Vietnam between 1965 and 1971, peaking in 1967 with around 170,000 Chinese in the DRV. Things changed when Khrushchev was out of power and replaced by Leonid Brezhnev who favored more direct involvement to aid North Vietnam. A converted T-28 trainer aircraft is seen near 250-pound bombs used by Meo pilots of Vang Pao's "mini-Air Force" against North Vietnamese in northern Laos. “The French had controlled Vietnam for a couple of generations,” explains Ed Moise, a professor of history at Clemson University and author of Tonkin Gulf and the Escalation of the Vietnam War. The South was supported by anti-communist countries, primarily the United States. By 1972, the idea that Vietnam posed a threat to Cold War America was so discredited, it sometimes sounded as if America’s only remaining war aim was to … In fact, French President Charles de Gaulle warned his U.S. counterpart, John F. Kennedy Jr., that Vietnam would be a “bottomless military and political swamp.” Though prescient, the advice ultimately went unheeded. People’s Republic of China (PRC) was the first country that recognized the Democratic republic of vietnam (DRV) led by Ho Chi Minh back in January 1950. The main countries involved in the Vietnam War were North and South Vietnam. Cambodia, while officially neutral, tolerated communist intrusions—and was bombed by the United States for those intrusions. They were seeking to strengthen their ties with France and help stop the spread of communism. “Their function is as a tripwire,” Moise says, “a warning to the Americans: ‘Don’t go too far… or you’ll be fighting us.’”. As the original communist state, the Soviet Union aided North Vietnam, with increasing support in the late 1960s. The Soviet Union remained indifferent with the conflict in Vietnam in early 1960s under Nikita Khrushchev even after the Gulf of Tonkin incident. WHAT COUNTRIES WERE INVOLVED IN THE VIETNAM WAR? North Vietnam immediately broke the accord, however, moving troops and supplies through Laos rather than traversing the heavily guarded demilitarized zone that separated it from South Vietnam. France had been a long-time occupier of Vietnam before 1954. The Vietnam War was described as a civil war within South Vietnam, although it became a proxy war between Cold War powers. As the Pentagon Papers later revealed, “the Diem regime certainly, and an independent South Vietnam almost as certainly, could not have survived” without U.S. help. South Korea was the main U.S. and South Vietnamese partner, providing over 300,000 troops and suffering some 5,000 deaths. Also known as the Second Indochina War or simply the American War to the Vietnamese, the epic struggle claimed the lives of more than 2 million people, including some 60,000 U.S. personnel and more than a million civilians. South Vietnam was backed by anti-communist countries and members of the South East Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) which included the United States, South Korea, Australia, the Philippines, New Zealand, Thailand, Khmer Republic (later overthrown by Khmer Rouge), Kingdom of Laos and Republic of China (Taiwan). 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